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General Information

Smith, Holly S., 1997,"Aceh: Art and Culture", Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.

Hurgronje, C. Snouck, 1906,"The Acehnese", (trans. by  A. W. S. O'Sullivan), Vols. I and II, Leiden: Brill.

Hiorth, Finngeir, 1991, "A Sketch of Aceh's History", Kabar Seberang: Sulathing Maphilindo, no. 22,  p. 1-22.

Leigh, Barbara, 1989,"
Hands of Time: The Crafts of Aceh", Jakarta, Djambatan Press.

Said, Mohammad, 1961-1991, "Aceh Sepanjang Abad", (in Indonesian), Vol. 1, 2, & 3, Medan. 

Siegel, James T., 1984, "Acehnese", in Richard V. Weekes (Ed.), Muslim Peoples : A World Ethnographic Survey, 2nd ed., Westport, Connecticut : Greenwood Press.


Asyik, Abdul G., 1987, "A Contextual Grammar of Acehnese Sentences (Complementation)", PhD thesis, The University of Michigan.

Daud, Bukhari and Mark Durie, 1999,"Kamus Basa Aceh : Kamus Bahasa Aceh : Acehnese - Indonesian - English Thesaurus", Pacific Linguist Press.

Durie, Mark, 1985, "A Grammar of Acehnese On the Basis of a Dialect of North Aceh", Dordrecht : Foris Publications.

Durie, Mark, Bukhari Daud, and Mawardi Hasan, 1994, "Acehnese", in Cliff Goddard and Anna Wierzbicka (Eds.), Semantic and Lexical Universals: Theory and Empirical Findings, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Co..

        Notes: For complete list of Mr. Mark Durie writings on Acehnese laguange study, please visit his homepage at 

Sociology, Culture, and Economic

Alfian, 1985,"The Ulama in Acehnese Society", in Ahmad Ibrahim, Sharon Siddique and Yasmin Hussain (Eds.), Readings on Islam in Southeast Asia, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Bowen, John Richard, 1991,"Sumatran Politics and Poetics : Gayo History, 1900-1989", New Haven : Yale University Press.

Bowen, John Richard, 1993,"Return to Sender: A Muslim Discourse of Sorcery in a Relatively Egalitarian Society, the Gayo of Nothern Sumatra", in C. W. Watson and Roy Ellen (Eds.), Understanding Witchcraft and Sorcery in Southeast Asia, Honolulu-Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press.

Bowen, John Richard, 1993, "Muslims Through Discourse : Religion and Ritual in Gayo Society", Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press.

Brown, David, 1994,"Neo-Patrimonialism and National Integration in Indonesia: The Case of Aceh", in Brown, The State and Ethnic Politics in Southeast Asia, London: Routledge Publisher.

Dawood, Dayan, and Sjafrizal, 1989,"Aceh: The LNG Boom and Enclave Development", in Hal Hill (Ed.), Unity and Diversity: Regional Economic Development in Indonesia Since 1970, Singapore: Oxford University Press.

Drewes, G. W. J. and P. Voorhoeve, 1958, "Adat Atjeh", The Hague : Martinus Nijhoff.

Drewes, G. W. J., (Ed. and trans.), 1979, "Hikajat Potjut Muhamat: An Achehnese Epic", The Hague : Martinus Nijhoff.

Drewes, G. W. J., (Ed. and trans.), 1980, " Two Achehnese Poems : Hikajat Ranto and Hikajat Teungku di Meuke", The Hague : Martinus Nijhoff.

Iskandar, Teuku, 1958, "De Hikajat Atjeh" (in Dutch), Gravenhage : M. Nijhoff.

Ito, Takeshi, 1984, "The World of the Adat Aceh: A Historical Study of the Sultanate of Aceh", PhD thesis, Canberra: Australian National University.

Iwabuchi, Akifumi, 1994, "The People of the Alas Valley : A Study of An Ethnic Group of Northern Sumatra", New York : Oxford University Press.

Morin, Stephen R., 1997, "Common Property and Exchange in a Natural Resource Management System: A Case Study from Northern Sumatra (Muslim, Livestock, Range Management)", PhD thesis, University of Kentucky.

Raap, Wilhelmina R., 1994, "The Great Mosque of Banda Aceh: Its History, Architecture and Its Relationship to the Development of Islam in Northern Sumatra", MA thesis, Canada: University of Victoria.

Saby, Yusny, 1995, "Islam and Social Change: The Role of the 'Ulama' in Acehnese Society", PhD thesis, Temple University.

Schlegel, Stuart A., 1979, "Technocrats in a Muslim Society: Symbolic Community in Aceh", in Gloria Davis (Ed.), What is Modern Indonesian Culture?, Athens: Ohio University Center for International Studies.

Siapno, Jacqueline A., 1997, "The Politics of Gender, Islam, and Nation-State in Aceh, Indonesia: A Historical Analysis of Power, Co-optation, and Resistance (Women)", PhD thesis, California: University of California at Berkeley.

Siegel, James T., 1969, "The Rope of God", Berkeley: The University of California Press.

Siegel, James T., 1979,"Shadow and Sound: The Historical Thought of A Sumatran People", Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Teeuw, A, 1964, "Hikayat Raja-raja Pasai dan Sejarah Melayu",  in John Bastin and R. Roolvink, Malayan and Indonesian Studies, Oxford - The Clarendon Press.

Sultanate of Aceh (from 1300s to 1800s)

Alves, Jorge M. dos Santos, 1998, "The Foreign Traders' Management in the Sultanates of the Straits of Malacca: The Cases of Malacca, Samudera-Pasai and Aceh, 15th and 16th Centuries", in Calude Guillot et al (Eds.), From The Mediterranean To the China Sea: Miscellaneous Notes, Wiesbaden - Germany: Harrassowitz Verlag.

Anderson, John, 1971, "Acheen and the Ports on the North and East Coasts of Sumatra", Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.

Auni, Luthfi, 1993, "The Decline of the Islamic Empire of Aceh (1641-1699)", MA thesis, Canada: McGill University.

Boxer, C. R., 1964, "The Acehnese Attack on Malacca in 1629, as Described in Contemporary Portuguese Sources" in John Bastin and R. Roolvink, Malayan and Indonesian Studies, Oxford - The Clarendon Press.

Braker, L F, 1975, "State and Statecraft in 17th Century Aceh", in Anthony Reid and Lance Castles (Eds), Pre-colonial State Systems in Southeast Asia: The Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Bali-Lombok, South Celebes, Council of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society.

El Ibrahimy, H. M. Nur, 1993, "Selayang Pandang Langkah Diplomasi Kerajaan Aceh", Jakarta : Gramedia Widiasarana Indonesia.

Hadi, Amirul, 1992, "Aceh and the Portuguese: A Study of the Struggle of Islam in Southeast Asia, 1500-1579", MA thesis, Canada: McGill University.

Lee, Kam Hing, 1995, "Sultanate of Aceh: Relations With the British 1760-1824", Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.

Lombard, Denys, 1986, "Kerajaan Aceh : Jaman Sultan Iskandar Muda (1607-1636)", (trans. from Le Sultanat d'Atjeh au Temps d'Iskandar Muda 1607-1636), Jakarta : Balai Pustaka.

Reid, Anthony, 1969, "The Contest for North Sumatra: Atjeh, the Netherlands and Britain, 1858-1898" Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.

Reid, Anthony, 1975, "Trade and the Problem of Royal Power in Aceh. Three Stages: c. 1550-1700" in Anthony Reid and Lance Castles (Eds), Pre-colonial State Systems in Southeast Asia: The Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Bali-Lombok, South Celebes, Council of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society.

Reid, Anthony, (Ed.), 1995, "Witnesses to Sumatra: A Travellers' Anthology", Oxford in Asia Paperbacks, Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press. (Note: seventeen out of 38 chapters of the book are about Aceh).

Aceh War Era (1873-1942)

Alfian, Ibrahim, 1987, "Perang di Jalan Allah: Perang Aceh 1873-1912", (in Indonesian), Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan.

H. C. Zentgraaf, 1983, "Aceh", (trans. from Atjeh, in Dutch, 1939), Jakarta: Beuna.

J. I. Bakker, 1993,"The Aceh War and the Creation of the Netherlands East Indies State", in A. Hamish Ion and E. J. Errington, Great Powers and Little Wars; The Limits of Power, Westport, London: Praeger Publisher.

Van't Veer, Paul, 1985, "Perang Aceh : Kisah Kegagalan Snouck Hurgronje ", (trans. from De Atjeh-Oorlog), Jakarta: Grafitipers.

Early Independence Period (1945-1947)

Reid, Anthony, 1979, "The Blood of the People: Revolution and the End of Traditional Rule in Northern Sumatra", Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.

Morris, Eric Eugene, 1985, "Aceh: Social Revolution and the Islamic Vision", Audrey R. Kahin (Ed.), Regional Dynamics of The Indonesian Revolution: Unity From Diversity, Honolulu-Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press.

Darul Islam Rebellion (1953-1962)

Clive J. Christie, 1996,"Nationalism and the 'House of Islam': the Acehnese Revolt and the Republic of Indonesia" in Christie, A Modern History of Southeast Asia: Decolonization, Nationalism, and Separatism, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Morris, Eric Eugene, 1985, "Islam and Politics in Aceh: A Study of Center-Periphery Relations in Indonesia", PhD Thesis, Cornell University.

Sjamsuddin, Nazaruddin, 1985, "The Republican Revolt: A Study of the Acehnese Rebellion", Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Van Djik, C.,  1981, "Rebellion Under the Banner of Islam: The Darul Islam in Indonesia", The Hague Martinus Nijhoff,.

Free Aceh Movement Rebellion (1976-1981 and 1989-1993)

Hiorth, Finngeir, June 1986, "Free Aceh: An Impossible Dream?", Kabar Seberang: Sulathing Maphilindo, no. 17,  p. 182-94.

Sjamsuddin, Nazaruddin, 1984, "Issues and Politics of Regionalism in Indonesia: Evaluating the Acehnese Experience", in Lim Joo-Jock and Vani S., (Eds.), Armed Separatism in Southeast Asia,  Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Kell, Tim, 1995, " The Roots of Acehnese Rebellion 1989-1992", Cornell Modern Indonesia Project, No. 74, Ithaca-New York: Cornell University.

Hasan Muhammad di Tiro Writings

di Tiro, Hasan Muhammad, 1958, "Democracy for Indonesia", Aceh: Penerbit Seulawah.

_______________, 1965,"The Political Future of the Malay Archipelago", New York: Atjeh Institute in America.

_______________, 1980, "The Legal Status of Acheh-Sumatra Under International Law", Acheh-Sumatra National Liberation Front.

_______________, 1984, "Indonesia as a Model Neo-Colony", a lecture given at City University of London, August 20, 1984.

_______________, 1985, "The Case and the Cause of the National Liberation Front of Acheh-Sumatra", a presentation before The Scandinavian Association of Southeast Asian Social Studies, Goteborg, August 23.

_______________, 1986,"Indonesian Nationalism: A Western Invention to Contain Islam in the Dutch East Indies," in M. Ghayasuddin (Ed.), The Impact of Nationalism on the Muslim World,  London: The Open Press/ Al-Hoda Publishers.

_______________, 1976,"The Price of Freedom: The Unfinished Diary" Open Press Holdings, 300 Steelcase Road West, #8, Markham, Ontario L3R 2W2, Canada.

Military Oppression

Amnesty International, 1993,"Indonesia: 'Shock Therapy' - Restoring Order in Aceh, 1989 - 1993", London: Amnesty International.

Robinson, Geoffrey, 1998,"Rawan is as Rawan Does: The Origins of Disorder in New Order Aceh", Indonesia, vol. 66, p. 127-56.

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